This widespread poverty serves as a chief cause of underdevelopment. Foreign aid as a neocolonialist instrument of dependency and underdevelopment of nigeria uduma, d. Such theories include the elite theory, the power elite. Corruption is such a big issue in nigeria that it is implicated in almost every problem that faces the nation. However, that hope never stand the true test of time. At the beginning, there was little query as to the causes of underdevelopment. So what are the causes of underdevelopment in africa and possible solutions. In either case the basic situation of dependence causes these countries to be both backward and exploited. Theoretical considerations at this time of cold war explained the situation of underdevelopment and the path for development from the viewpoint of. One of the most influential books of the twentieth century was walter rodneys. Using nigeria, for the obvious reasons of its huge human and material endowments as well as the comparative advantage of its ethnic diversity. Development and underdevelopment in nigeria silvia federici. The independence of african states from colonial rule began from the middle part of the 20th century signaled strong prospects and hope for a better and prosperous continent. Corruption and underdevelopment in nigeria scientific research.
Underdevelopment in africa journal of social, political and. Corruption remains the main cause of underdevelopment in africa. Underdevelopment, relating to international development, reflects a broad condition or phenomena defined and critiqued by theorists in fields such as economics, development studies, and postcolonial studies. There are three main schools of scholars that discuss the reasons of underdevelopment in the third world and they also try and provide specific frameworks for overcoming those problems and heading towards a developed state.
The paper pinpoints that corruption is the core reason behind african underdevelopment and it laid emphasis on corruption and underdevelopment interface in nigeria. Advancing reasons for africas underdevelopment, sambit bhattacharyya argued that malaria matters the most and all other factors are statistically insignificant. Africa is home to a very large percentage of the poorest people in the world. Many european countries which have already developed all their resources and have reached a high level of development can now generate their own capital. By the decade of seventies of the 20th century, the theory of the stages of economic growth became redundant and the structural internationalist theory became prominent. Specifically, it will investigate the major causes of political and economic dependency in.
A critical analysis on the reasons of underdevelopment in africa. The causes of under development and the challenges. For africa to break the impasse of underdevelopment, the paper calls for good governance and the. With the basic development indices lacking in a country, in spite of the abundant human and natural resources by providence, there has been a serialized enquires to unveil the causes, magnitude and dimensions of the paradox of underdevelopment in nigeria which has left over 140 million people in an enclave of backwardness. Most important source of african underdevelopment the locus classicus of which is walter rodneys how europe underdeveloped africa. Department of sociology faculty of the social sciences ekiti state university adoekiti, nigeria. Some countries do not have sufficient supply of trained and skilled manpower necessary for all here development effort. Nigeria, cum the impacts or the roles of the nigerian elites in the course of. Despite the creation of two anticorruption agencies, corruption still strives in nigeria.
Against this background, the paper documents incidence of flood, its causes and impacts on residents in agege local government area of lagos state nigeria. The most common cause of underdevelopment in a country is lack of education. Growth and development do not merely depend upon capital accumulation. The paper is a critical examination of rural development programmes and the challenge of rural underdevelopment in nigeria. The initial problem in the nigerian everyday life is, of course, corruption. According to mills 2011, 2010, africa is poor today mainly because its leaders have chosen poverty over development of its people. Pdf the causes of underdevelopment in the third world. The causes of underdevelopment in the third world and. In this paper, we shall hold nigeria s underdevelopment to mean qualitative. Abstract the paper critically investigated poverty in nigeria over the years, considering its. The subregion also records more rural poverty than urban poverty with 37 percent of the population in the rural areas living below twothird of their national mean per capita income in 1999. Colonizers used the idea of being at completely separate evolutionary points in development.
Economic underdevelopment in africa in contrast with the surging growth of the countries in the socialist camp, the majority of the capitalist countries, is the unquestionable fact that a large proportion of the socalled underdeveloped countries are in total stagnation. To drive home the point that the underdevelopment of africa, nay nigeria is caused primarily by the leaders of. This obviously reflects the shortage of planning skill in the. The paper explores the phenomenon of insurgency and underdevelopment in nigeria, its adverse impact on nationhood and security, and recommends new management strategies that the nigerian government can make use of in tackling the problem. Africa publish your bachelors or masters thesis, dissertation, term paper or essay. In fact, this year, the british prime minister theresa may remarked that africa and in particular nigeria is home to some of the poorest people in the world.
Jun 30, 2016 causes of underdevelopment and development. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of corruption on national development in nigeria fourth republic. Causes of underdevelopment, strategies for development hubpages. But the most common cause of under development is the dependency upon developed countries, and terrorism. Dependency as we all know is a product of underdevelopment which is prevalent in africa in general and nigeria in particular. Abstract the study explored the phenomenon of graduate unemployment as well as its causal factors, consequences and remedies in nigeria. Abstract the paper examines conflict and political stability in nigeria. This is because lack of capital is not the only cause of underdevelopment and poverty. One problem that confronts development is the problem of poverty.
Nigeria and the political economy of underdevelopment. Dependency and underdevelopment of nigerian economy adekunle. Root causes of african underdevelopment, departmental working papers 200816, the australian national university, arndtcorden department of economics. The nigerian government got her political independence in 1960. What are the causes of underdevelopment in nigeria. Why africa remains underdeveloped despite its potential. This paper holds the position that underdevelopment as currently experienced in nigeria and the whole of africa should be blamed on africans who have taken pleasure in corruption, bad governance. Nigeria the most populated country in africa filled with its endowed natural resources, and according to the united nations statistics nigeria is the 8th most populous county in the world with a population of 2. A read is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authors, clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the fulltext. Such problems, like extreme poverty or a low hdi, may be seen as consequences of an underdeveloped nation, but they may also be seen as the causes for its underdevelopment.
Underdevelopment of africa underdevelopment in africa is a problem that has been plaguing the countries all over the continent for a very long time. Causes, consequences and remediable approaches longe, olukayode ph. The structuralist approach looks at development in terms of the power relationship between different nations and between different people within. Poverty, cultural causes, structural causes, corruption, unemployment 1. It is incumbent to examine some of the reasons why corruption thrives in nigeria. For instance the first development plan in nigeria 19621968 did not reflect sound planning. Used primarily to distinguish states along benchmarks concerning human developmentsuch as macroeconomic growth, health, education, and standards of livingan underdeveloped state is.
The development space between urban and rural areas in nigeria is very broad in terms of the provision of economic development. A developed country is one which provides a high standard of living to its people as a result of the per capita income and gross natural product. R ogwuru federal university ndufu alike ikwo, ebonyi state, nigeria. Essay underdevelopment of africa 635 words bartleby. This has necessitated the evocation of dependency theory in explaining africas cum nigerias underdevelopment situation, hence africas underdevelopment has been linked to two categories of factors. For instance, the modernist school believes that africa needs to follow the development strategies of the industrialized nations before it can be developed, while the dependency theorists argued that the exploitation of africa by the super powers was responsible for africas. Internal causes of underdevelopment a historical perspective is essential in order to understand why african countries have failed to take part in the international economic development we have seen in this era of globalisation.
Specifically, it will investigate the major causes of political and economic dependency in nigeria, cum the impacts or the roles of the nigerian elites in the course of nigerian dependency and underdevelopment. The village sits at the very junction between the qua river one of the main water arteries of southeastern nigeria and the atlantic ocean, on a beach from where, in the past, thousands of slaves initiated their midpassage to the americas. May 03, 2008 in the course of time it became obvious that this was more or less a treatment of symptoms instead of causes, and the gap gradually widened between the developed and less developed countries of this world. Political corruption has been blamed for the continued underdevelopment of nigeria.
Causes of economic dependency when considering the causes of economic underdevelopment and dependency on the part of african countries, it is important to remember that this distinction is the explicit result of exploitation at the hands of colonizers. According to this theory, the system of the capitalistic world causes a. This treatise, along with frantz fanons wretched of the earth, and a few others are a mustread for. The concepts of corruption and underdevelopment are of common daily usage in. Within this second group of scholars who ascribe to internal causes of africas underdevelopment, there is a growing body of knowledge associating underdevelopment with africas bad leadership. Causes of underdevelopment, strategies for development. The socio political set up of african countries has a similarity with those of the east asian nations which have brought economic progress through exercising developmental state. The causes of underdevelopment in developing countries include. Impacts of flood disaster in agege local government area. The effect of this shortage is felt both in the planning of development strategy and in the execution of the plans. There are other causes as well, such as foreign ownership of the countrys resources, but education is the most important. Underdevelopment is a key geographical issue in the modern world, as it is considered to be characteristic of a country which possesses a certain number of problems. The paper highlights the features of underdevelopment in nigeria. A critical analysis on the reasons of underdevelopment in africa failed states and reasons for social unrest in africa stephen ekokobe awung essay politics international politics region.
Pdf with abundant human and natural resources, nigeria is expected. A critical analysis on the reasons of underdevelopment in. What are the causes of underdevelopment in africa with. Causes of underdevelopment in developing countries answers. Since 1960 that nigeria got her independence, the government hospitals are just consulting rooms because the facilities are moribund, bad road networks and poverty have been increasing at an alarming rate. The second most populous continent which has an abundance of highly valuable minerals. It is such a huge issue that has affected almost every. Countries with a well educated populace tend to be developed. Africas economy is rated as the poorest in the world. For africa to break the impasse of underdevelopment, the paper calls for good. Causes of underdevelopment and concepts for development. During the early period of development efforts there was little discussion on the historical causes and the real nature of underdevelopment. There are other important factors which are responsible for low income and poverty of the people of the developing countries. This widespread poverty serves as a chief cause of underdevelopment in africa.
Dec 11, 2010 the most common cause of underdevelopment in a country is lack of education. This study was undertaken to unravel the cause of the african underdevelopment. Imperialism and neocolonialism from former or superior nations whom directly or indirectly might be in the helms of affairs of these. Its rate of killing cannot be compared to any disease from the genesis of mankind. One of the most influential books of the twentieth century was walter rodneys how europe underdeveloped africa boglelouverture publications, 1972.
Economic underdevelopment in africa violence in twentieth. A notverypopular but probably profound cause of africas underdevelopment as pointed out by a scholar is the prevalence of malaria. Causes of under development are not same in all under developing nation states, somewhere corruption is the major cause, somewhere lack in resources are the major cause, and somewhere wrong policies are the major cause of under development. The causes of underdevelopment in the third world and possibility for human development. Even though nigeria is a bright country with massive perspectives for growth, the reasons. Abstract this study espouses the impact of foreign aid as an instrument of dependency and underdevelopment in nigeria. Concepts of development and underdevelopment objectives. Africans are the major cause of their underdevelopment. The internal factors, nnadozie said, fan the ember of. Foreign aid as a neocolonialist instrument of dependency and. It emphasizes the need for a paradigm shift in the development of rural areas in nigeria. These range from, high rate of unemployment, inegalitarian distribution of income and wealth, high level of insecurity, increase level of absolute poverty low level of social and political consciousness, to an increase in illiteracy rate, poor health services, housing condition. Major cause of insecurity in west africa the stability of a country in terms of physical security is necessary for economic development when considered within the context of interstate rivalry and competition. Pointedly, it is directly aimed at ascertaining the relationship between foreign aid and the dependency status of.
Countries without an educated populace tend to be underdeveloped. The need for a robust africa policy is greater than ever. Without a doubt, africa is one of the most blessed continents on our planet in terms of both natural and human resources. Mar 19, 2018 bad governance the gross negligence of the government on issues that affect the nigerian populace is evident from the complaints that an average nigerian enthuses on a daily basis. Afrojugation, african tiger, nigeria underdevelopment, corruption. It concludes that the underdevelopment of nigeria is cause by the politico economic system she adopts. Different schools of thought have developed in order to find out the causes of africas underdevelopment. It has brought about so many consequences, but of all, the economy is the most affected sector because the. According to this theory, the system of the capitalistic world causes a labour. Root causes of african underdevelopment article pdf available in journal of african economies 185 february 2008 with 77,337 reads how we measure reads. Jan 07, 20 leadership and underdevelopment in nigeria. Dependency and underdevelopment in africa is our main thrust which we try to relate the above to the nigerian context.1221 1151 570 980 1372 1137 447 1485 1225 1538 1247 963 1501 1278 670 998 1548 719 638 1334 861 399 496 481 1000 1200 55 867 685 718 778 779 1297 1412 521